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Tyler Frankenstein: Headless Drupal Web App with Angular JS and DrupalGap

Sat, 18/07/2015 - 22:20

In this tutorial (for NYC CAMP 2015) we'll explore how to use Drupal 7 and DrupalGap 2 (powered by Angular JS) to build a decoupled ("headless") web application for Drupal. In a nutshell, here is what the app will do:

  1. A user runs the app in their browser
  2. The browser asks the user for access to their current location
  3. The app passes their location to Drupal
  4. Drupal will return nearby content (if any) to the app
  5. The app will display the locations on a map and let the user click on them to see more details

Ready? Let's rock and roll, no time to fiddle...

Categories: Elsewhere

Wuinfo: Test Driven Coding Style

Sat, 18/07/2015 - 03:11

Like Chinese philosophy Yin and Yang, Coding and testing support each other. Here I want to introduce a method to increase the rate of software project success. It is a critical thinking in programming, an agile methodology on a micro-scale level. What is it? In every line of code, every loop or conditional block, we look for multiple solutions. For each solution, we evaluate possibilities of going wrong. Pick the most reliable one. It helps us remove most of code vulnerability at beginning.

Knowing how to test is more important than knowing how to coding. A good function is stable, fast and, requires less memory and computing resources. It is not necessary to be complicated or has difficult API functions under the hood. Usually, it has less code and seems to be simpler than the rest. And it is the result of various tests and trying different methods. We choose the best way to compose the code base on various tests. It ensures robust software system with less vulnerability.

Let us say there is a project that send human beings to the Mars. If we are part of the project and our responsibility is to land the spaceship on the surface of the planet safely. How to make sure 'Landing Function' work without any deadly 'bug'? To us, what is the most important thing for it? It is not the landing gear; it is not the parachute. It is the tests. Under different situations, we performing hundreds or thousands of tests to validate each equipment. Find those thousands testing cases is the most difficult and important task. We need to find as close condition as possible under which when landing the spaceship on the Mars. The temperature, the speed of the spaceship, the chemical in the air, etc. Test materials under all sorts of combined circumstances. Any possibility that can go wrong, we will let it fail in the test.

When we solve a problem or fix bugs, we do the same thing. We do some research. By doing some research, we guess the cause of a problem. Then, we try to prove it with many tests. If the test results are positive, then, we came to a conclusion. Otherwise, we continue guesses and tests. Insufficient tests may lead us to a wrong conclusion.

Again, the tricky thing is how we test it. It is same when building new functions or modules. Whenever there is a solution, we put it under different conditions and validate it. We cover it with enough test cases. Like Chinese philosophy Yin and Yang, Coding and validating support each other.

When building a complex function, we may divide it into many baby steps. Each step is important to the overall success. Exhaust the ways testing each step to make sure each one is good. The result of the previous step can safely serve the next step. Finding a good way to test each step is crucial. Because there are many ways to do a thing. We need to choose the best one with tests. To each baby step, there can be a dozen ways to take. Able to find the most reliable way is a merit of a good software developer or a project leader. When pushes code to production, it can be way more complicated and possible to break. As laws of Murphy, anything that can go wrong will go wrong. So, have multiple test scenarios prepared for the smallest function unit. It is essential to make our code safe and sound. We will never overestimate the importance of it.

When it comes to a complex function, dividing it into small functional units that are easy to verify. Let's say the CYouTube project. We divide it into multiple steps and sub-steps. Each step has an easy and clear goal to achieve.

  • Pull JSON data from YouTube
  • Create Drupal queue task for each item
  • Create a file entity of video for each task
  • Each of those major Steps has multiple sub-steps. For example, pulling data from YouTube has following sub-steps.

  • Collect YouTube channel name from Drupal nodes field.
  • Get Youtube Channel upload playlist ID from YouTube with the collected channel name.
  • Cache function for playlist ID
  • Download YouTube video list JSON data with the playlist ID.
  • Parse the downloaded JSON into an array for next major step. That is to create Drupal queue tasks
  • Each of the sub-task or major task is easy to verify. Whenever, something goes wrong, we can follow the steps and find the broken one. From large scale to small, we can use this methodology. When we practise it more, our minds become more capable to find those steps with clear goals; We will foresee the problem when we choose the way to implement each step. That is before we do some real coding; That is how we can develop software that requires less maintenance.

    Test-driven development (TDD) relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle. The developer writes an automated test case before writing code. Our approach is a step ahead of it. When thinking about the solution, we find test cases first. Passing those test is the goal of next step - coding. We start think about test case when we read the requirement document. When we write code, we are thinking about how to break it. Whenever we finish a function, it went though many verification tests by ourselves. When it finishes, we have a much better chance to have a fully functioning module. If it does not work out, we can always return to each step and find the broken link by reiterating the verification process. I believe it is the most efficient way to develop something.

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Four Kitchens: Making reactive Headless Drupal 8 interfaces with Meteor

    Fri, 17/07/2015 - 23:30
    Meteor + Drupal = Real time Drupal interfaces

    Meteor is a JavaScript framework that enables developers to quickly create reactive, highly accessible applications. It can be an incredibly powerful tool, especially when paired with Drupal, which is a great content management system that makes it really easy to create well-structured content models and interact with data.

    Why not combine the two and let Drupal provide Meteor with semantic data with Meteor rendering that data in a reactive way?

    Drupal How-Tos
    Categories: Elsewhere

    Aten Design Group: The Publishing Experience on

    Fri, 17/07/2015 - 21:34

    Human Rights Watch (HRW) has been sharing important stories for over 30 years and we were excited about enhancing the digital story-telling experience in the latest relaunch of Out-of-the-box, Drupal provided a great platform for us to craft tools that matched HRW’s internal publishing workflows, while allowing their publishers to create long-form content with videos, galleries and other rich content.

    Embedded Media

    Aten's design team set the bar with the new design direction for Their vision for the long-form articles included flexibility for embedding media content throughout the text. After a lengthy evaluation period with Drupal’s Media module, it become clear that HRW needed more flexibility than it provided. In addition to embedding file based media (i.e. images), there were requirements around embedded text based content like quotes and callouts for other node based content. For consistency, we went with the Node Embed approach that we’ve blogged about before. Having a node-based workflow also provided a familiar workflow for HRW’s publishers.

    Long-form Reports

    One of HRW’s most important tasks is creating in-depth reports on certain issues around the world. It's not uncommon for these reports to approach 100 pages In PDF form. Two goals of the relaunch included the report creation workflow in Drupal and improving report navigation.

    Report Creation Workflow

    HRW has an internal workflow for editing and publishing reports that they’ve used for years. The end product of that workflow is a printed report and an online HTML version. Rather than trying to force a new internal workflow, we discussed pain points HRW had with their current process and built a couple tools to provide a better experience.

    HTML Upload

    When creating report nodes in Drupal, HRW can upload the HTML file that was created outside of the content management system. The upload process adds anchor tags and generates a table of contents based on semantic heading tags, detects image references that do not exist on the site yet, and makes a few other formatting changes The report content and table of contents are then saved in the database rather than processing the uploaded content on the fly.

    Report Navigation

    In past iterations, reports were broken up into many pages. Now, users can use the table of contents to quickly jump to relevant sections of the report. Having reports on a single page also allows users to use built in browser tools like “Find” to search for keywords.

    Featured Content

    HRW has many topic and location based landing pages where editors can curate content. HRW wanted the flexibility to manually feature content or, given the large number of these pages, have the most relevant automatically show up. To achieve this, we used Views, Entity Reference, and a custom module to tie the two together. The custom code checks the Entity Reference field for manually curated content then utilizes Views to pull the relevant content into the remaining content slots available. This allows HRW to mix curated and automated content easily without having to choose one approach over the other.

    Related Content

    Rather than showing users additional content at the bottom of an article based on time or tag, we worked with HRW to craft an algorithm, or scoring system, to display related content. When deciding which relevant content to show, date, geography, and topic are all taken into consideration. Similar to featured content, HRW has the flexibility to manually relate content on any article with the algorithmic suggestions filling missing slots.


    Once HRW publishes important information, they leverage social channels like Twitter to help spread the word. We provided HRW publishers the ability create curated Sharelines that are displayed prominently for users to Tweet directly from the article.

    It was exciting to work on such a large publishing project and help provide tools to help tell important stories in many languages. We hope you enjoy browsing the new!

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Four Kitchens: Nearly Headless Drupal

    Fri, 17/07/2015 - 20:31

    Drupal is a pretty strong content manager, allowing you to build robust data models, easily enable content revisioning, and build a publishing workflow complex enough for even the strictest of editorial standards. However, the blistering speed of development on Drupal 8 appears glacial when compared with the rate of invention on the frontend of web development.

    Categories: Elsewhere

    OSTraining: Use the Masquerade Module to Test Drupal Roles

    Fri, 17/07/2015 - 20:27

    If you have a large Drupal site, you may have a large number of roles and users.

    To thoroughly test your site and make sure everything is working correctly, it's smart to browse your site under different roles.

    Yes, you can create fake accounts for each user role, but that becomes very cumbersome if you have more than a couple of roles.

    The Masquerade module is very easy to use, and it allows yourself to see the site through the eyes of any user you choose:

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Acquia: Gender balance in tech sales through data-driven, objective hiring

    Fri, 17/07/2015 - 18:48
    Language Undefined

    At a recent Acquia all-company meeting, I was glad to hear that half of the current group of Acquia U students and 7 out of 12 of the latest "BDR" hires in Sales were women. Acquia's CEO, Tom Erickson added that this was the result of some "objective, data-driven" hiring practices. I had to know more. I got Acquia Senior Manager of Business Development and Sales, Chris Hemberger on the line to talk about all of this.

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Drupal core announcements: Recording from July 17th 2015 Drupal 8 critical issues discussion

    Fri, 17/07/2015 - 15:18

    This was our 8th critical issues discussion meeting to be publicly recorded in a row. (See all prior recordings). Here is the recording of the meeting video and chat from today in the hope that it helps more than just those who were on the meeting:

    If you also have significant time to work on critical issues in Drupal 8 and we did not include you, let me know as soon as possible.

    The meeting log is as follows (all times are CEST real time at the meeting):

    [11:11am] jibran:
    [11:11am] Druplicon: => Ensure token replacements have cacheability + attachments metadata and that it is bubbled in any case [#2525910] => 149 comments, 22 IRC mentions
    [11:12am] alexpott:, is the issue dawehner is talking about
    [11:12am] Druplicon: => Ensure token replacements have cacheability + attachments metadata and that it is bubbled in any case [#2525910] => 149 comments, 23 IRC mentions
    [11:12am] Druplicon: => Update guzzle, goutte and mink-goutte-driver to the latest release [#2493911] => 140 comments, 6 IRC mentions
    [11:13am] dawehner: GaborHojtsy++
    [11:13am] dawehner: GaborHojtsy++
    [11:13am] alexpott: is the config overrides
    [11:13am] Druplicon: => Config overrides should provide cacheability metadata [#2524082] => 110 comments, 32 IRC mentions
    [11:13am] Druplicon: => Config overrides should provide cacheability metadata [#2524082] => 110 comments, 33 IRC mentions
    [11:14am] GaborHojtsy:
    [11:14am] Druplicon: => Local Tasks, Actions, and Contextual links should use a TranslationWrapper to encapsulate safe translatable strings from YAML files [#2338081] => 62 comments, 16 IRC mentions
    [11:14am] jibran:
    [11:14am] Druplicon: => Update guzzle, goutte and mink-goutte-driver to the latest release [#2493911] => 140 comments, 7 IRC mentions
    [11:15am] WimLeers:
    [11:15am] Druplicon: => Ensure token replacements have cacheability + attachments metadata and that it is bubbled in any case [#2525910] => 149 comments, 24 IRC mentions
    [11:15am] WimLeers:
    [11:15am] Druplicon: => Unrouted URLs break toolbar but are hidden by caching [#2532490] => 31 comments, 8 IRC mentions
    [11:17am] WimLeers:
    [11:17am] Druplicon: => Convert page elements (local tasks, actions) into blocks [#507488] => 280 comments, 57 IRC mentions
    [11:22am] WimLeers: plach's issue:
    [11:22am] Druplicon: => URL generation does not bubble cache contexts [#2351015] => 300 comments, 57 IRC mentions
    [11:23am] Fabianx-screen: shows 997 majors and 376 added in the last year.
    [11:24am] jibran:
    [11:24am] Druplicon: => Information disclosure/open redirect vulnerability via blocks that contain a form [#2504141] => 66 comments, 12 IRC mentions
    [11:28am] dawehner:
    [11:29am] dawehner:
    [11:29am] jibran:
    [11:29am] Druplicon: => Update guzzle, goutte and mink-goutte-driver to the latest release [#2493911] => 140 comments, 8 IRC mentions
    [11:29am] Druplicon: => Update guzzle, goutte and mink-goutte-driver to the latest release [#2493911] => 140 comments, 9 IRC mentions
    [11:37am] dawehner:
    [11:37am] Druplicon: => Provide an upgrade path for #2354889 (block context manager) [#2528178] => 45 comments, 9 IRC mentions
    [11:38am] dawehner:
    [11:38am] Druplicon: => Provide an upgrade path for #2354889 (block context manager) [#2528178] => 45 comments, 10 IRC mentions
    [11:43am] jibran:
    [11:43am] Druplicon: => Replace CacheablePluginInterface with CacheableDependencyInterface [#2464427] => 94 comments, 9 IRC mentions
    [12:14pm] dawehner:
    [12:14pm] Druplicon: => Local Tasks, Actions, and Contextual links should use a TranslationWrapper to encapsulate safe translatable strings from YAML files [#2338081] => 62 comments, 17 IRC mentions

    Categories: Elsewhere

    OSTraining: Can't Find the "Install new module" Link in Drupal?

    Fri, 17/07/2015 - 01:54

    When developers install Drupal modules, they rely on Drush or version control to manage their work.

    However, most ordinary Drupal users do everything through the admin interface. They install modules via the "Install new modules" link.

    Sometimes that link goes missing. If you can't find your "Install new modules" link, here are four possible solutions.

    Categories: Elsewhere

    DrupalCon News: Meet the Local Community!

    Thu, 16/07/2015 - 18:42

    The European DrupalCon in 2015 will take place in the beautiful city of Barcelona, one of the most visited and explored Spanish and European destinations for visitors from all around the world. But beyond the touristic appeal, Spain and Barcelona are the houses of very active and healthy Drupal communities.

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Pronovix: Interview with a d8upgrade user

    Thu, 16/07/2015 - 15:18

    If you are still hesitating if it's worth the effort to sign up for d8upgrade, we wanted to give you an account from one of our users who did already do so. We asked omong_kosong, if we could interview him for a blogpost, what follows are his answers to the questions we sent him.

    What do you think about the d8upgrade service? Was it helpful?

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Code Karate: Create Secret URLs with Drupal 7 Token Content Access

    Thu, 16/07/2015 - 14:33
    Episode Number: 209

    Have you ever wanted to create a page on your Drupal 7 website and send it over to a friend or group of people… but you don’t want the general public to see it? You could always set it up so they just log in, but that’s an extra step and not all of the people you want to send this to have user accounts on your site.

    Tags: DrupalDrupal 7Site BuildingDrupal Planet
    Categories: Elsewhere

    Commerce Guys: Five things you should know about Drupal 8 on

    Thu, 16/07/2015 - 13:56
    If you are thinking about building something on Drupal 8, or maybe you saw the the recent television interview with our CEO Frederic Plais on France’s BFM Business channel, then here is what some of the hype is all about

    1. Drupal 8 is coming, and has been ready since 2014 While other PaaS providers are playing catch-up, we’ve been running Drupal 8 successfully since last year, providing Drush 7 support and a Symfony-based CLI for local development. is also multi-technology, so that Drupalists looking to “get off the island” can easily run Drupal and Symfony and very soon Drupal and NodeJS side-by-side.

    2. Leading Swiss publisher is using and Drupal 8 in production, others are already in the pipeline Since going live in June, has been providing Switzerland with cutting-edge news, radio and TV in the form of a specially developed Drupal 8 portal. Since its launch, the site has taken over 12m hits in a 7 day period, making it one of the largest Drupal 8 sites in the world right now.

    And that’s just the beginning. We have several other Drupal 8 sites that are currently in development and we’re working with our partners to deliver many more.

    See more on Südostschweiz see the following release:

    3. and Fastly (CDN) unleash Drupal 8 tagged caching News portals and other sites with frequent content updates have been subject to at least one serious constraint up to now; careful scheduling of content updates that requires the entire global cache to be invalidated and re-built. The downside being massive spikes as every request is passed through to your backend webservers. That’s now a thing of the past, as can selectively invalidate both the reverse proxy, and via our own specially developed API, the CDN itself. This is one of the reasons selected for its new hosting PaaS.

    4. The Drupal Association (DA) is using for Drupal 8 (D8) Usability Testing The Drupal 8 Usability Testing that was recently conducted in Minneapolis made great use of This phase of Drupal 8 development is crucial to the success of the new CMS, and benefited greatly from’s unique ability to spin up multiple identical environments - on-demand and within seconds - for testing against many hundreds of different variables. Many of Drupal's leading lights are clearly recognising the value of to their landmark projects.

    You can find out more on the D8 usability testing here:

    5. Enterprise offers a Drupal 8-ready, triple-redundant architecture that is secure, resilient and effortlessly scalable. 24/7 white glove support and comprehensive documentation round out the offer. With highly credible financial backers (including the recent grant from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 program see ), we are accelerating our roadmap with a wealth of features that will boost the benefits of Drupal 8 and everything that goes with it.

    Interested? Then get in touch at
    Categories: Elsewhere

    Symphony Blog: How to share Drupal content via Facebook with correct images

    Thu, 16/07/2015 - 10:41

    When you share a post of your Drupal site via Facebook, it will automatically detect the images of your node for you to choose. But sometimes, it does not detect any images, or the detected images are not what you want. How can you deal with that?

    An easy method is uploading the main image manually. That's fine, because you are the owner of the site, you know which ones to choose. However, if your readers share that piece of content and it has an ugly image, it does not look attracting at all.

    In this tutorial, we show you how to set meta data for your Drupal nodes so the correct images will be chosen, when you share them via Facebook.

    read more

    Categories: Elsewhere

    KnackForge: Drupal : Add an icon to the menu links

    Thu, 16/07/2015 - 08:33

    We all like decorated items than normal ones. Everyone like to add icon/image to their site's menu links but we need some tricks to add that into our drupal site's menu link. I am going to show you various methods to add an icon/image to the drupal menu links.

    1. theme_menu_link() : 

    It would return html elements for the menu and it's submenu. We can change the menu html elements using this function and this function must be written in our theme's template.php file. In this example, I am going to add icons to the main menu.

    /** * Implementation of theme_menu_link__MENU_NAME(). */ function THEME_NAME_menu_link__main_menu(array $variables) { $element = $variables ['element']; $sub_menu = ''; if ($element ['#below']) { $sub_menu = drupal_render($element ['#below']); } $icon = 'icon-' . $element['#title']; $output = l($icon . $element ['#title'], $element ['#href'], $element ['#localized_options']); return '<li' . drupal_attributes($element ['#attributes']) . '>' . $output . $sub_menu . "</li>\n"; }

    This will add our new unique class to all main menu links, we could simply add the icons with class using css style.

    2. Menu Icons :

    The menu icons is a drupal contributed module. It is one of the simplest solutions to add the icons/images through UI. This module allows you to upload an image in the menu-item configuration form.

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Drupal @ Penn State: ELMSLN - Coming to a camp near you

    Wed, 15/07/2015 - 23:36

    I was made aware that it’s been close to a year since I actually did a demo of the reason that I contribute so many modules to drupal. org. For those that don’t know, the reason I exist is a project called ELMS Learning Network. It is a Drupal 7 based deployment methodology that takes the many parts of an LMS and fragments them across a series of drupal distributions.

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Cheeky Monkey Media: Into the Fire with Foundation and The Big “D”rupal

    Wed, 15/07/2015 - 23:26

    Cheeky Monkey broke my Foundation cherry.  It’s been a pleasurable experience.

    Coming from frameworks like Zen Grids (+ Drupal Theme) and Susy2 Grids, I can appreciate (and need) some major control over the grids.  I have to say though, foundation does a bang up job of letting you control the ‘big stuff’ with ease, and still being able to get down into the nitty griddy(see what I did there?) -- and change what you like without too much fuss.

    Drupal, Drupal he’s our man.

    And then, oh yeah, there’s a Drupal theme for it!  ...

    Categories: Elsewhere

    Four Kitchens: Introducing Saucier

    Wed, 15/07/2015 - 23:11

    With the first party API building tools built into Drupal 8 core, there’s been a lot of talk about building semantic APIs in Drupal; when, how, and why you should or should not. However, a commonly overlooked piece of this picture is how to go about actually consuming these APIs. And as it turns out, consuming an API, even a well designed one, can present a number of challenges. That’s why we created Saucier, a Node.js framework used to quickly create web pages from data that has been consumed from a Drupal API.

    JavaScript Drupal
    Categories: Elsewhere

    OpenConcept: Conforming to coding standards with linters

    Wed, 15/07/2015 - 18:27

    At the the DrupalNorth code sprint, I spent some time chatting about code linters, and how to use them to ensure your code conforms to coding standards. So, I thought I'd share the process that works for me.

    If you find a better process, please blog about it and post a link in the comments!

    This tutorial assumes:

    • You write or modify code in a language like PHP, JavaScript, CSS, Bash, etc.
    What is a linter?

    Simply put, a linter is a static analysis tool that you can run to ensure that your code is free from syntax and/or style errors.

    Types of linters

    To help me prioritize fixing linter messages, I usually classify linters into two types:

    • Linters that check for syntax errors, and,
    • Linters that check for coding standards violations.

    I consider linters that check for syntax errors manditory, since I can't really think of a time when I would want code which contains syntax errors (in PHP and JavaScript, syntax errors cause unrecoverable fatal errors if the file containing the code is ever parsed (i.e.: white screen of death, JavaScript engine halting)). I will not commit code unless these types of linters give the okay.

    I consider linters that check for coding standards violations strongly recommended (as they affect the maintainability of your code), but technically optional (because code that doesn't conform to standards still works). I try to avoid committing code that doesn't pass these linters; but there are some circumstances when that is unavoidable (e.g.: if I have to commit a contributed module, or if it's a hotfix and there's a plan to make the code more-maintainable later).

    Checking for syntax errors

    Many interpreted languages and shells have a syntax-checker built into them, for example:

    • php -l $file will check a PHP script for syntax errors,
    • bash -n $file will check a BASH shell script for syntax errors,
    • ruby -c $file will check a Ruby script for syntax errors,
    • perl -c $file will check a Perl script for syntax errors,
    • zsh -n $file will check a ZSH shell script for syntax errors, and,
    • fish -n $file will check a Fish shell script for syntax errors.

    I wasn't able to find any built in syntax linters for JavaScript, Python, and PowerShell, but please leave a comment if you know of one.

    Checking for coding standards

    Github has put together a showcase of clean code linters, but note that they are limited to ones developed on Github.

    As a Drupal developer, I usually use:

    Since Drupal's coding standards differ slightly from other communities, all of these tools need to be configured slightly before you can use them. I'll explain how to install and configure all of these below.

    Note that PHP CodeSniffer, the Drupal coding standards sniffs, and the Drupal Best Practice sniffs are used by the Drupal Automated Project Review tool.

    PHP CodeSniffer

    To set up PHP CodeSniffer, I'm assuming that:

    • You know how to use the command-line,
    • PHP is installed on your machine and in your PATH,
    • You have installed Composer,
    • You want to install PHP CodeSniffer globally (i.e.: for all projects), and,
    • Composer's ~/.composer/vendor/bin folder is in your PATH.
    1. Tell Composer to install PHP CodeSniffer globally:

      composer global require 'squizlabs/php_codesniffer'
    2. Install the Coder module globally, so we can use it's Drupal coding standards and best practices sniffs:

      composer global require 'drupal/coder'
    3. Register the Drupal and DrupalPractice Standards with PHP CodeSniffer:

      phpcs --config-set installed_paths ~/.composer/vendor/drupal/coder/coder_sniffer

    To check that a file conforms to the Drupal coding standards, run:

    phpcs --standard=Drupal $file

    To check that a file conforms to the Drupal best practices, run:

    phpcs --standard=DrupalPractice $file Setting a default coding standard

    It is possible to set a default coding standard (i.e.: so you can just run phpcs $file), but:

    • You still have to run

      phpcs --standard=DrupalPractice $file

      to check that the file conforms to best practices, and,

    • If you ever have to work on non-Drupal projects, you'll have to explicitly state:

      phpcs --standard=PEAR $file

      for php's default functionality.

    Instead of setting a default, you could create an alias in your shell. For example, if you use Bash, adding...

    alias drupalcs='phpcs --standard=Drupal'

    ... to your .bash_profile or .bashrc will let you run...

    drupalcs $file

    ... instead of...

    phpcs --standard=Drupal $file

    If you use another shell, this is left as an exercise to the reader.

    Fix coding standards violations with the PHP Code Beautifier (phpcbf)

    PHP CodeSniffer also ships with a command called phpcbf (PHP Code Beautifier), which can fix some coding standards violations automatically. For example, to convert a file to the Drupal coding standards, run:

    phpcbf --standard=Drupal $file

    A word of warning: I haven't tested phpcbf very extensively, so your mileage may vary. It may eat your code and/or socks.

    Ignoring files, or parts of a file

    You might want to ignore coding standards violations on legacy code that the team has decided isn't worth the effort to convert to coding standards.

    • You can ignore whole files by adding a

      // @codingStandardsIgnoreFile

      comment at the top of the file, immediately after the opening PHP tag.

    • You can ignore certain parts of a file by surrounding that part of the file with

      // @codingStandardsIgnoreStart


      // @codingStandardsIgnoreEnd


    See the PHPCodeSniffer advanced usage instructions for more information.


    To set up ESLint, I'm assuming that:

    • You know how to use the command-line,
    • You have installed Node.js,
    • Node.js' npm ("Node Package Manager") executable is in your PATH, and,
    • You want to install ESLint globally (i.e.: for all projects).
    1. Tell npm to install ESLint globally:

      npm i -g eslint

      On certain machines, you may need to run this command with sudo; but try it without sudo first.


    ESLint needs a .eslintrc file (and usually, a .eslintignore file as well) in your project's root directory.

    If you're working on a Drupal 8 project, ESLint will just work, because it's configuration files ship with Drupal 8.0.x core. For other projects, you'll need to copy .eslintrc from Drupal 8 core.

    Drupal 8.0.x core's .eslintignore probably won't work for your project, but I've put together some templates for your D7 projects, and you can also refer to the official .eslintignore documentation if you need to customize them further.


    To check that a JavaScript file conform to Drupal coding standards, run:

    eslint $file CSSLint

    To set up CSSLint, I'm assuming that:

    • You know how to use the command-line,
    • You have installed Node.js,
    • Node.js' npm ("Node Package Manager") executable is in your PATH, and,
    • You want to install CSSLint globally (i.e.: for all projects).
    1. Tell npm to install ESLint globally:

      npm i -g csslint

      On certain machines, you may need to run this command with sudo; but try it without sudo first.


    CSSLint needs a .csslintrc file in your project's root directory.

    If you're working on a Drupal 8 project, CSSLint will just work, because it's configuration file ships with Drupal 8 core. For other projects, you'll need to copy .csslintrc from Drupal 8 core.


    To check that a CSS file conforms to Drupal coding standards, run:

    csslint $file Running the coding-standards linters

    Once PHP CodeSniffer, ESLint, and CSSLint have been installed and configured, you can:

    • Check that a PHP file conforms to Drupal coding standards with:

      phpcs --standard=Drupal $file
    • Check that a PHP file uses Drupal best practices with:

      phpcs --standard=DrupalPractice $file
    • Check that a JavaScript file conforms to Drupal coding standards with:

      eslint $file
    • Check that a CSS file conforms to Drupal coding standards with:

      csslint $file
    A note on the history of Drupal coding standards checkers

    In the past, most of us used the Coder module to check that our work conformed to the Drupal coding standards and documentation standards. However, the Coder module relied on parsing PHP, JavaScript, etc. code using regular expressions, which were hard to understand, write, and maintain, and couldn't catch all cases (because almost all programming languages are parsed with tokenizers and context-free grammars).

    The move to PHP CodeSniffer started with the Drupal Code Sniffer (drupalcs) module, which eventually was imported into the Coder module's 7.x-2.x branch. It concentrated on checking PHP code only.

    As the Drupal Community developed our own CSS coding standards and JavaScript coding standards, we needed a way to automatically check those too. Rather than writing our own parsers, we decided to "get off the island" and use what the wider web development community was using.

    Stay tuned

    Next week, I will blog about automatically running linters when you commit code, which can be pretty useful.

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    Categories: Elsewhere